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Jung, Carl Gustav


Carl Gustav Jung was born on 26 July 1875 in Kesswil, Switzerland as the son of the pastor Johann Paul Achilles Jung and his wife Emilie Preiswerk. His grandfather Carl Gustav Jung (1794-1864) had been a famous physician and rector of the University of Basle. In 1879 the family moved to Klein-Hüningen near Basle. From 1895 to 1900 Jung studied natural sciences and then medicine at the University of Basle, completing his degree with a dissertation on "The Psychology and Pathology of Occult Phenomena". In this work he analyzed spiritualist sessions conducted with his cousin, the medium Helene Preiswerk, and established that partial personalities deriving from the unconscious psyche can manifest themselves in trances, dreams and hallucinations. Between 1900 and 1905 he was an intern under Prof. Eugen Bleuler at the psychiatric clinic Burghölzli in Zurich, where he devoted his attention to the treatment of psychoses and also to association studies. Jung and Bleuler were among the first to make use of Freud’s psychoanalysis in psychiatric treatment. Jung was able to prove that delayed responses, errors and disturbances in association tests are an indicator for emotional impressions, which he referred to as "complexes" and saw as objective substantiation for Freud’s theory of repression. In 1903 Jung married Emma Rauschenbach, the daughter of an industrialist, who was not only the mother of his five children, but in later years also became involved in his work and herself was a practitioner of psychoanalysis. From 1905 to 1909 Jung was a senior physician at Burghölzli, and until 1913 he was also a docent at the University of Zurich. His international reputation grew, and Burghölzli developed into one of the leading psychiatric research clinics worldwide. Jung’s correspondence with Freud began in 1906. Freud actively courted him, meeting with him in person from 1907 onward and seeing in him the ideal international representative of the psychoanalytic movement, his heir and "crown prince".

Jung left the clinic in 1909 because of overwork and the increasing tensions in his relationship to Bleuler. He established a private practice in Küsnacht, setting up his office in a spacious house built according to his own plans where he lived and worked until his death. In September of that year he traveled together with Freud, Jones and Ferenczi to Clark University in Worcester, Mass. to hold a series of lectures. In 1910 he became the first president of the International Psychoanalytic Association. His first differences with Freud arose with the publication of _Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido _(1912), wherein Jung defined the libido as a universal, undifferentiated psychical energy. For him sexuality is only one of the libido’s multiple forms of expression, while for Freud libido is a strictly sexual drive. Furthermore, Jung discovered that the libido can express itself in the form of symbols in the myths of all epochs and peoples. The scientific dispute eventually led to a break with Freud in 1913, and in 1914 Jung resigned the presidency of the IPA. Several questionable remarks made by Jung about Judaism and his position as president of the Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie, an organization founded in 1934 in Nazi Germany (Jung remained president until 1939), gave rise to the accusation that Jung had sympathized with the National Socialists. Jung emphatically repudiated this accusation, but later admitted to having made mistakes. Between 1933 and 1942 Jung taught as a docent (honorary professorship in 1935) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. In 1943 he received a professorship at the University of Basle, from which he resigned a year later due to illness. He devoted his remaining years to writing and research, especially the study of alchemist and hermetic texts. Carl Gustav Jung died on 6 June 1961 in Küsnacht.

In the years after the split with Freud, Jung experienced a creative illness, which peaked in his self-analysis and in the confrontation with his own unconscious, leading at times to psychotic reactions. Following this period he developed his own approach to depth psychology, which he termed Analytic (Complex) Psychology. It incorporates elements of gnosis, mythological research, symbolism, religious studies, hermetism and alchemy and differs markedly from Freud’s naturalistic-positivistic psychoanalysis. The central concepts of Jung’s thinking are individuation, the self, the archetype and the collective unconscious. He understands individuation as the realization of all developmental possibilities residing in the self, as a process having the goal of developing the person into a whole individual clearly differentiated from others. The self encompasses all of the conscious and unconscious elements of the psyche and consists of the ego, the individual unconscious and the collective unconscious. Jung’s most significant genuine discoveries are the collective unconscious and the archetypes. The collective unconscious is the psychical heritage gathered in the course of humanity’s phylogenic development and the sum of all archetypes. An archetype is an innate, inherited pattern, a matrix of the psychical functioning that is common to all humans regardless of race, stand or culture and that activates typical patterns of behavior and experience. Among the archetypal structures are ego, persona (social mask), shadow (repressed, split off partial personalities), animus and anima (unconscious gender differentiation, i.e. the image of the man in the woman’s psyche and vice versa). Jung dealt with the type problem in Psychological Types (1921), where he differentiates two fundamental attitudes with which humans relate to reality: introversion and extroversion. There are also four functional types, whereby thinking and feeling and are termed rational functions and sensation and intuition are termed irrational functions. Thus a total of eight different personality types are possible.

During the last years of his life, Jung devoted himself intensively to the study of alchemic and hermetic texts, whose symbols and images he interpreted as tangible projections of the collective unconscious and the archetypal. Through his work C. G. Jung made a key contribution to the meeting of Eastern and Western thought. He was a friend of important scholars, including the Sinologist Richard Wilhelm, the Indologist Heinrich Zimmer and the mythologist Karl Kerényi. Jung’s ideas have found especially strong resonance among artists and writers and have been taken up by myth research, psychotherapy and the New Age movement. Additionally, they have had an effect on physics and have been confirmed by findings in biology (etology).

_Text: Christian Huber
Translation: Christopher Barber




*Eine detaillierte Bibliographie der Werke C. G. Jungs befindet sich in:
Jung, C. G. (1995), Bibliographie, Gesammelte Werke, Bd.19, Düsseldorf. *

Werkausgaben _
**(1958-1992), Gesammelte Werke, 20 Bde. Hg. Von Marianne Niehus-Jung, Lena Hurwitz-Eisner, Franz Riklin, Lilly Jung-Merker und Elisabeth Rüf, Olten u. Freiburg im Breisgau.
engl.: (1953-1992) Collected Works, 20 vols. Ed. Herbert Read, Michael Fordham and Gerhard Adler. Exec. ed. William McGuire. Transl. R. F. C. Hull and others, Princeton, NJ (= Bollingen Series XX).

(1902), Zur Psychologie und Pathologie sogenannter okkulter Phänomene, Leipzig.

(1912), Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Denkens. Leipzig, Wien.

(1913), Versuch einer Darstellung der psychoanalytischen Theorie. Neun Vorlesungen, gehalten 1912 an der Fordham University, Leipzig.

(1921), Psychologische Typen, Zürich.

(1928), Die Beziehungen zwischen dem Ich und dem Unbewußten, Darmstadt.

(1929) gemeinsam mit Richard Wilhelm, Das Geheimnis der Goldenen Blüte. Aus dem Chinesischen übersetzt von Richard Wilhelm. Europäischer Kommentar von C. G. Jung, München.

(1931), Seelenprobleme der Gegenwart. Vorträge und Aufsätze, Zürich.

(1932), Die Beziehungen der Psychotherapie zur Seelsorge, Zürich.

(1934), Wirklichkeit der Seele. Anwendungen und Fortschritte der neueren Psychologie, Zürich.

(1940), Psychologie und Religion. Terry Lectures 1937, gehalten an der Yale University, Zürich.

(1941) gemeinsam mit Karl Kerényi, Einführung in das Wesen der Mythologie, Amsterdam, Zürich.

(1943), Über die Psychologie des Unbewußten, Zürich.

(1944), Psychologie und Alchemie, Zürich.

(1946), Die Psychologie der Übertragung, Zürich.

(1948), Symbolik des Geistes, Zürich.

(1948), Über psychische Energetik und das Wesen der Träume, Zürich.

(1950), Gestaltungen des Unbewußten, Zürich.

(1951), Aion. Untersuchungen zur Symbolgeschichte, Zürich.

(1952), Antwort auf Hiob, Zürich.

(1952) gemeinsam mit Wolfgang Pauli, Naturerklärung und Psyche, Zürich.

(1952), Symbole der Wandlung. Analyse des Vorspiels zu einer Schizophrenie, Zürich.

(1954), Von den Wurzeln des Bewußtseins. Studien über den Archetypus, Zürich.

(1955-57), Mysterium Coniunctionis. Untersuchungen über die Trennung und Zusammensetzung der seelischen Gegensätze in der Alchemie, 3 Bde., Zürich.

(1957), Gegenwart und Zukunft, Zürich.

(1958), Ein moderner Mythus. Von Dingen, die am Himmel gesehen werden, Zürich.

(1962, Neuaufl. 1967), Erinnerungen, Träume, Gedanken von C. G. Jung. Aufgezeichnet und hg. von Aniela Jaffé, Zürich.
engl.: (1962) Memories, Dreams, Reflections, by C. G. Jung, recorded and ed. Aniela Jaffé, trans. Richard and Clara Winston, New York.

(1966), Über die Psychologie des Unbewußten, Zürich.**

(1991), Kinderträume. Hg. von Lorenz Jung und Maria Meyer-Grass, Düsseldorf, Zürich.

(1991), Traumanalyse: nach Aufzeichnungen der Seminare 1928-1930. Hg. von William McGuire, Deutsch von Brigitte Stein

(1989), Analytical Psychology. Notes of the Seminar Given in 1925. Ed. by William McGuire, Princeton, NJ (= Bollingen Series XCIX).
dt.: (1995), Analytische Psychologie: nach Aufzeichnungen des Seminars 1925. Hg. von William McGuire, Deutsch von Helga Egner, Solothurn, Düsseldorf.

(1996), The Psychology of Kundalini Yoga. Notes of the Seminar Given in 1932. Ed. by Sonu Shamdasani, Princeton, NJ (= Bollingen Series XCIX).

(1972-73), Briefe in 3 Bdn. Hg. von Aniela Jaffé und Gerhard Adler, Olten.
engl.: (1973-75), Letters in 2 vols. Selected and ed. Gerhard Adler in collaboration with Aniela Jaffé. Transl. R. F. C. Hull and Jane A. Pratt, Princeton, NJ (= Bollingen Series XCV).

Sigmund Freud/C. G. Jung (1974), Briefwechsel. Hg. von William McGuire und Wolfgang Sauerländer, Frankfurt/M.
Engl. (1974), The Freud/Jung Letters. Ed. William McGuire, transl. Ralph Manheim and R. F. C. Hull, Princeton, NJ. (= Bollingen Series 94).

Wolfgang Pauli/C. G. Jung (1992), Ein Briefwechsel. Hg. von C. A. Meier. Unter Mitarb. Von C. P. Enz und M. Fierz, Berlin.
engl.: (2001), Atom and Archetype: The Pauli-Jung Letters 1932-1958, ed. C. A. Meier, trans. David Roscoe, Princeton, NJ.


**Bair, Deirdre (2003), Jung. A Biography, Boston, New York, London.
dt.: (2005), C. G. Jung. Eine Biographie. Aus dem Amerikan. von Michael Müller, München.

Balmer, H. (1972), Die Archetypentheorie von C. G. Jung, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Bennet, E. A. (1961), C. G. Jung, London.

Carotenuto, Aldo (Hg.) (1986), Tagebuch einer heimlichen Symmetrie. Sabina Spielrein zwischen Jung und Freud, Freiburg i. B.

Eissler, K. R. (1982), Psychologische Aspekte des Briefwechsels zwischen Freud und Jung, Stuttgart, Bad Cannstatt (= Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse, Beiheft 7).

Ellenberger, Henri F. (1970), The Discovery of the Unconscious. The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry, New York.
dt.: (1973), Die Entdeckung des Unbewußten. Geschichte und Entwicklung der dynamischen Psychiatrie von den Anfängen bis zu Janet, Freud, Adler und Jung, Bern.
TB: (1985, 2. durchgesehene und verbesserte Aufl. 1996), Zürich.
Neuaufl.: (2005), Zürich.

Evans, Richard (1967), Gespräche mit C. G. Jung, Zürich.

Fierz, Heinrich Karl (1976), Die Jungsche Analytische Psychologie, München (= Geist und Psyche 2166).

Franz, Marie Luise von (1972), C. G. Jung. Sein Mythos in unserer Zeit, Frauenfeld, Stuttgart.

Frey-Rohn, Liliane (1969), Von Freud zu Jung, Zürich.

Hannah, Barbara (1976), C. G. Jung. His Life and Work. A Biographical Memoir, New York.
dt.: (1982), C. G. Jung. Sein Leben und Werk. Biographische Aufzeichnungen, Fellbach-Oeffingen.

Hauke, C. (2000), Jung and the Postmodern. The Interpretation of Realities, London.

Hayman, R. (1999), A Life of Jung, London.

Heisig, J. (1979), Imago Dei. A Study of Jung’s psychology of Religion, Lewisburg.

Jacobi, Jolande (1940), Die Psychologie von C. G. Jung. Eine Einführung in das Gesamtwerk, Zürich.
engl.: (1968), The Psychology of C. G. Jung. An Introduction with Illustrations, London.

Jaffé, Aniela (1967), Der Mythos vom Sinn im Werk von C. G. Jung, Zürich.

Jaffé, Aniela (1968), Aus Leben und Werkstatt von C. G. Jung. Parapsychologie, Alchemie, Nationalsozialismus, Erinnerungen aus den letzten Jahren, Zürich.

Kerr, John (1993), A Most Dangerous Method. The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein, New York.
dt.: (1994), Eine höchst gefährliche Methode. Freud, Jung und Sabina Spielrein, München.

McLynn, F. (1996), Carl Gustav Jung, London.

Noll, Richard (1994), The Jung Cult. The Origins of a Charismatic Movement, Princeton.

Noll, Richard (1997), The Aryan Christ. The Secret Life of Carl Jung, New York.

Obrist, Willy (1990), Archetypen. Natur- und Kulturwissenschaften bestätigen C. G. Jung, Olten.

Rowland, S. (1999), C. G. Jung and Literary Theory. The Challenge from Fiction, London.

Rowland, S. (2002), Jung. A Feminist Revision, Oxford.

Samuels, Andrew (1985), Jung and the Post-Jungians, London, New York.
dt.: (1989), Jung und seine Nachfolger. Neuere Entwicklungen der Analytischen Psychologie, Stuttgart.

Samuels, Andrew/Shorter, Bani/Plaut, Fred (1986), A Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis, London.
dt.: (1989), Wörterbuch Jungscher Psychologie, München.

Shamdasani, Sonu (1998), Cult Fictions. C. G. Jung and the Founding of Analytical Psychology, London.

Shamdasani, Sonu (2003, repr. 2004), Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology. The Dream of a Science, Cambridge.

Shamdasani, Sonu (2005), Jung Stripped Bare by his Biographers, Even, London.

Smith, R. C. (1997), The Wounded Jung. Effects of Jung’s Relationships on his Life and Work, Evanston.

Stern, P (1976), C. G. Jung. The Haunted Prophet, New York.
dt.: (1977), C. G. Jung. Prophet des Unbewußten, München, Zürich.

Stevens, Anthony (1990, repr. 1999), On Jung, Princeton.

Stevens, Anthony (1994), Jung, Oxford.
dt.: (1999), Jung, Freiburg, Basel, Wien.

Wehr, Gerhard (1969), C. G. Jung, Reinbek (= Rowohlts Monographien 50152).

Wehr, Gerhard (1972), C. G. Jung und Rudolf Steiner, Stuttgart.

Wehr, Gerhard (1975), C. G. Jung und das Christentum, Olten.

Wehr, Gerhard (1985), Carl Gustav Jung. Leben, Werk, Wirkung, München.
TB: (1988), Carl Gustav Jung. Leben, Werk, Wirkung, Zürich.
engl.: (1985), Jung. A Biography, Boston.

Wilson, C. (1983, repr. 1984), C. G. Jung. Lord of the Underworld, Wellingborough.

Wolff, Toni (1959), Studien zu C. G. Jungs Psychologie, Zürich.

Zumstein-Preiswerk, Stephanie (1975), C. G. Jungs Medium, München.

_Zusammengestellt von Christian Huber


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